Obesity is a very important health problem because it is the root cause of many diseases and is deleterious for general health. For example, cardiovascular diseases, particularly heart attacks and stroke cause 17 million deaths per year all over the world, as the number one causes of preventable deaths. Smoking and obesity are the most important preventable causes of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, the number of deaths caused by Type 2 diabetes, directly associated with obesity, will increase by 50% over the next decade.
If the mortality rate is considered to be 1 when the body mass index is between 20-25, no significant increase occurs between 25-30, but the rate becomes 1.5 times higher when the body mass exceeds 30, becomes 2 times higher when it is between 35-40, and becomes 2.5 times higher when the body mass exceeds 40. After BMI 30, a significant increase occurs in the risk of co-morbid diseases such as diabetes and hypertension.
The main health issues related with obesity:
- Cardiovascular Problems: Coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, obstructive vascular diseases, venous stasis in the legs, varicose veins.
- Type 2 Diabetes
- Some types of cancer (uterus, breast, prostate and large intestine cancers)
- Dyslipidemia (Increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels)
- Digestive system problems: Fatty liver, gallbladder stones, gastroesophageal reflux disease
- Respiratory tract diseases: Sleep apnea, hyperventilation syndrome, pulmonary embolism
- Musculoskeletal system problems: Osteoarthritis (deterioration of articular cartilage), immobility, herniated lumbar disc
- Urogenital problems: Menstrual irregularity or amenorrhoea, polycystic ovaries, infertility, urinary incontinence.
- Psychosocial problems: Occupational disability, exposure to social discrimination, depression